These years witnessed rapid economic and territorial expansion; the extension of democratic politics; the spread of evangelical revivalism; the rise of the nation's first labor and reform movements; the growth of cities and industrial ways of life; radical shifts in the roles and status of women; and deepening sectional conflicts that would bring the country to the verge of civil war. This section examines the changes that took place in voting, nominating procedures, party organization, and campaign strategies between and ; and explains why new political parties emerged in the United States between the s and the s and how these parties differed in their principles and their bases of support. You will learn about the religious, cultural, and social factors that gave rise to efforts to suppress the drinking of hard liquor; to rehabilitate criminals; establish public schools; care for the mentally ill, the deaf, and the blind; abolish slavery; and extend women's rights, as well as about the efforts of authors and artists to create distinctly American forms of literature and art.
General principles[ edit ] William S.
Belko in summarizes "the core concepts underlying Jacksonian Democracy" as: By the end of the s, attitudes and state laws had shifted in favor of universal manhood suffrage  and by all requirements to own property and nearly all requirements to pay taxes had been dropped.
However, the Free Soil Jacksonians, notably Martin Van Burenargued for limitations on slavery in the new areas to enable the poor white man to flourish—they split with the main party briefly in The Whigs generally opposed Manifest Destiny and expansion, saying the nation should build up its cities.
Many Jacksonians held the view that rotating political appointees in and out of office was not only the right, but also the duty of winners in political contests. Patronage was theorized to be good because it would encourage political participation by the common man and because it would make a politician more accountable for poor government service by his appointees.
Jacksonians also held that long tenure in the civil service was corrupting, so civil servants should be rotated out of office at regular intervals. However, patronage often led to the hiring of incompetent and sometimes corrupt officials due to the emphasis on party loyalty above any other qualifications.
Jackson said that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty". However, he was not a states' rights extremist—indeed, the Nullification Crisis would find Jackson fighting against what he perceived as state encroachments on the proper sphere of federal influence.
As the Jacksonians consolidated power, they more often advocated expanding federal power, presidential power in particular.
Election by the "common man"[ edit ] Portrait of Andrew Jackson by Thomas Sully in An important movement in the period from to —before the Jacksonians were organized—was the expansion of the right to vote toward including all men.
No new states had property qualifications although three had adopted tax-paying qualifications— OhioLouisiana and Mississippiof which only in Louisiana were these significant and long lasting.
In Rhode Island, the Dorr Rebellion of the s demonstrated that the demand for equal suffrage was broad and strong, although the subsequent reform included a significant property requirement for anyone resident but born outside of the United States. However, free black men lost voting rights in several states during this period.
He had to be pulled to the polls, which became the most important role of the local parties.
They systematically sought out potential voters and brought them to the polls. Prior to the presidential election ofthe Anti-Masonic Party conducted the nation's first presidential nominating convention.
Held in Baltimore, Maryland, September 26—28,it transformed the process by which political parties select their presidential and vice-presidential candidates. Numerous politicians and editors who were given favorable loans from the Bank run for cover as the financial temple crashes down.
A famous fictional character Major Jack Downing right cheers: Every state had numerous political factions, but they did not cross state lines.
Political coalitions formed and dissolved and politicians moved in and out of alliances. InJohn Quincy Adams pulled together a network of factions called the National Republicansbut he was defeated by Jackson.
By the late s, the Jacksonian Democrats and the Whigs politically battled it out nationally and in every state.
The new party which did not get the name Democrats until swept to a landslide. As Mary Beth Norton explains regarding Jacksonians believed the people's will had finally prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president.
The Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party. As Norton et al. The Democrats represented a wide range of views but shared a fundamental commitment to the Jeffersonian concept of an agrarian society.
They viewed a central government as the enemy of individual liberty and they believed that government intervention in the economy benefited special-interest groups and created corporate monopolies that favored the rich.
They sought to restore the independence of the individual—the artisan and the ordinary farmer—by ending federal support of banks and corporations and restricting the use of paper currency. The long-term effect was to create the modern strong presidency.
Reformers eager to turn their programs into legislation called for a more active government. However, Democrats tended to oppose programs like educational reform and the establishment of a public education system. For instance, they believed that public schools restricted individual liberty by interfering with parental responsibility and undermined freedom of religion by replacing church schools.On the American frontier, democracy became a way of life, with widespread social, economic and political equality.
The system gradually evolved, from Jeffersonian Democracy or the First Party System to Jacksonian Democracy or the Second Party System and later to the Third Party System. Jacksonian Democracy.
Economic development contributed to the rapid growth of cities. Between and , the urban population of the nation increased by 60 percent each decade. But during the decades before the Civil War, distinctively American art and literature emerged.
In the s, novels appeared by African-American . Jacksonian Democracy. Economic development contributed to the rapid growth of cities. Between and , the urban population of the nation increased by 60 percent each decade.
But during the decades before the Civil War, distinctively American art and literature emerged. In the s, novels appeared by African-American and Native.
During the first decades of the nineteenth century, American politics shifted toward “sectional” conflict among the states of the North, South, and West. Since the ratification of the Constitution in , the state of Virginia had wielded more influence on the federal government than any other state.
An ambiguous, controversial concept, Jacksonian Democracy in the strictest sense refers simply to the ascendancy of Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party after When William Freehling's Prelude to Civil War first appeared in it was immediately hailed as a brilliant and incisive study of the origins of the Civil War.
Book Week called it "fresh, exciting, and convincing," while The Virginia Quarterly Review praised it as, quite simply, "history at its best."/5(15).