View current figure in a new window As can be seen in Figure 1 athe characteristic of the longitudinal view of Angora rabbit fiber is uni-serial ladder type medullated structure [ 5 ]. Their cross-sectional shape changes from oval to rectangular [ 9 ]. The Angora rabbit produces three kinds of hair such as guide hair, guard hair and down hair. Guide hairs are in to mm long and they guide and cover the growth of the other hairs.
Knowledge of the pre-Wycliffite English renditions stems from the many actual manuscripts that have survived and from secondary literature, such as book lists, wills, citations by later authors, and references in polemical works that have preserved the memory of many a translation effort.
Origins and basic characteristics English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages and is therefore related to most other languages spoken in Europe and western Asia from Iceland to India.
The parent tongue, called Proto-Indo-European, was spoken about 5, years ago by nomads believed to have roamed the southeast European plains. Germanicone of the language groups descended from this ancestral speech, is usually divided by scholars into three regional groups: Though closely related to English, German remains far more conservative than English in its retention of a fairly elaborate system of inflections.
Frisian, spoken by the inhabitants of the Dutch province of Friesland and the islands off the west coast of Schleswigis the language most nearly related to Modern English. Icelandic, which has changed little over the last thousand years, is the living language most nearly resembling Old English in grammatical structure.
Approximate locations of Indo-European languages in contemporary Eurasia. Modern English is analytic i. During the course of thousands of years, English words have been slowly simplified from the inflected variable forms found in SanskritGreekLatinRussianand German, toward invariable forms, as in Chinese and Vietnamese.
The German and Chinese words for the noun man are exemplary. German has five forms: Chinese has one form: English stands in between, with four forms: In English, only nouns, pronouns as in he, him, hisadjectives as in big, bigger, biggestand verbs are inflected.
English is the only European language to employ uninflected adjectives; e. As for verbs, if the Modern English word ride is compared with the corresponding words in Old English and Modern German, it will be found that English now has only 5 forms ride, rides, rode, riding, riddenwhereas Old English ridan had 13, and Modern German reiten has In addition to the simplicity of inflections, English has two other basic characteristics: Flexibility of function has grown over the last five centuries as a consequence of the loss of inflections.
Words formerly distinguished as nouns or verbs by differences in their forms are now often used as both nouns and verbs. One can speak, for example, of planning a table or tabling a plan, booking a place or placing a book, lifting a thumb or thumbing a lift.
In the other Indo-European languagesapart from rare exceptions in Scandinavian languagesnouns and verbs are never identical because of the necessity of separate noun and verb endings. In English, forms for traditional pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs can also function as nouns; adjectives and adverbs as verbs; and nouns, pronouns, and adverbs as adjectives.
One speaks in English of the Frankfurt Book Fair, but in German one must add the suffix -er to the place-name and put attributive and noun together as a compoundFrankfurter Buchmesse.
In French one has no choice but to construct a phrase involving the use of two prepositions: Foire du Livre de Francfort. In English it is now possible to employ a plural noun as adjunct modifieras in wages board and sports editor; or even a conjunctional group, as in prices and incomes policy and parks and gardens committee.
Any word class may alter its function in this way: Openness of vocabulary implies both free admission of words from other languages and the ready creation of compounds and derivatives.
English adopts without change or adapts with slight change any word really needed to name some new object or to denote some new process.
Words from more than languages have entered English in this way. Although a Germanic language in its sounds and grammarthe bulk of English vocabulary is in fact Romance or Classical in origin.One out of many word-formation processes in English is known as blending.
It can be roughly defined as the intentional coinage of a new word by fusing parts of at least two source words of which either one is shortened in the fusion and/or where there is some form of phonemic or graphemic overlap of.
ASL was the Matrix Language, no single-word code-blends were observed, suggesting stronger inhibition of English than ASL for these proﬁcient bilinguals.
We propose a model that accounts for similarities between co-speech gesture and. For instance, the English definite article the followed a regular phonological development from Old English to Middle English (i.e. the weaking of vowels and the loss of inflectional endings) although it was finally restricted by a morphological reorganization.
Word blends can also be formed by overlapping or combining phonemes, which are parts of two words that sound alike. One example of an overlapping word blend is "Spanglish," which is an informal mix of spoken English and Spanish.
Blends can also be formed through omission of phonemes. some of their distinctive characteristics. Words are potentially complex units, composed of even more basic units, English inflectional morphology Inflectional morphemes, as we noted earlier, alter the form of a word in or-der to indicate certain grammatical properties.
English has only eight inflec-. Most relevant morphological characteristics of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA are shown in Fig. 9. It is rather hard to distinguish the individual particles or grains from .