Starting insome newspapers broke with decades of tradition and started switching from AP to the new CNN news service. Although it was not as comprehensive, it was less expensive. Civil War quickly stretched the boundaries of newsgathering. Before this time newsgathering had been a bit amateurish and disorganized.
The term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around as they battled for circulation. Hearst Etymology and early usage The term was coined in the mids to characterize the sensational journalism that used some yellow ink in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer 's New York World and William Randolph Hearst 's New York Journal.
The battle peaked from to aboutand historical usage often refers specifically to this period. Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well.
An English magazine in noted, "All American journalism is not 'yellow', though all strictly 'up-to-date' yellow journalism is American! Wardman was the first to publish the term but there is evidence that expressions such as "yellow journalism" and "school of yellow kid journalism" were already used by newsmen of that time.
Wardman never defined the term exactly. Possibly it was a mutation from earlier slander where Wardman twisted "new journalism" into "nude journalism".
Louis Post-Dispatch the dominant daily in that city. Pulitzer strove to make the New York World an entertaining read, and filled his paper with pictures, games and contests that drew in new readers.
Crime stories filled many of the pages, with headlines like "Was He a Suicide? Pulitzer believed that newspapers were public institutions with a duty to improve society, and he put the World in the service of social reform. Just two years after Pulitzer took it over, the World became the highest circulation newspaper in New York, aided in part by its strong ties to the Democratic Party.
Hearst read the World while studying at Harvard University and resolved to make the Examiner as bright as Pulitzer's paper. But while indulging in these stunts, the Examiner also increased its space for international news, and sent reporters out to uncover municipal corruption and inefficiency.
Glackensportrays William Randolph Hearst as a jester distributing sensational stories In one well remembered story, Examiner reporter Winifred Black was admitted into a San Francisco hospital and discovered that indigent women were treated with "gross cruelty.
The newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst are both attired as the Yellow Kid comics character of the time, and are competitively claiming ownership of the war.
With the success of the Examiner established by the early s, Hearst began looking for a New York newspaper to purchase, and acquired the New York Journal ina penny paper which Pulitzer's brother Albert had sold to a Cincinnati publisher the year before.
Metropolitan newspapers started going after department store advertising in the s, and discovered the larger the circulation base, the better. This drove Hearst; following Pulitzer's earlier strategy, he kept the Journal's price at one cent compared to The World's two cent price while providing as much information as rival newspapers.
In a counterattack, Hearst raided the staff of the World in While most sources say that Hearst simply offered more money, Pulitzer — who had grown increasingly abusive to his employees — had become an extremely difficult man to work for, and many World employees were willing to jump for the sake of getting away from him.
Both were Democratic, both were sympathetic to labor and immigrants a sharp contrast to publishers like the New York Tribune 's Whitelaw Reidwho blamed their poverty on moral defects and both invested enormous resources in their Sunday publications, which functioned like weekly magazines, going beyond the normal scope of daily journalism.
Hogan's Alleya comic strip revolving around a bald child in a yellow nightshirt nicknamed The Yellow Kidbecame exceptionally popular when cartoonist Richard F.
Outcault began drawing it in the World in early When Hearst predictably hired Outcault away, Pulitzer asked artist George Luks to continue the strip with his characters, giving the city two Yellow Kids. The article is widely considered to have led to the recognition of new common law privacy rights of action.
Spanish—American War Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst Artist: Frederic Remington Pulitzer 's treatment in the World emphasizes a horrible explosion Hearst's treatment was more effective and focused on the enemy who set the bomb—and offered a huge reward to readers Main article: Propaganda of the Spanish—American War Pulitzer and Hearst are often adduced as the cause of the United States' entry into the Spanish—American War due to sensationalist stories or exaggerations of the terrible conditions in Cuba.
James Creelman wrote an anecdote in his memoir that artist Frederic Remington telegrammed Hearst to tell him all was quiet in Cuba and "There will be no war. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war.
Serious historians have dismissed the telegram story as unlikely The hubris contained in this supposed telegram, however, does reflect the spirit of unabashed self-promotion that was a hallmark of the yellow press and of Hearst in particular.
Stories of Cuban virtue and Spanish brutality soon dominated his front page. While the accounts were of dubious accuracy, the newspaper readers of the 19th century did not expect, or necessarily want, his stories to be pure nonfiction. Historian Michael Robertson has said that "Newspaper reporters and readers of the s were much less concerned with distinguishing among fact-based reporting, opinion and literature.
The yellow press covered the revolution extensively and often inaccurately, but conditions on Cuba were horrific enough.This account only scratches the surface of the story. If you want to know more about the history of marijuana, Harry Anslinger, and the saga of criminalization in the United States and elsewhere, visit some of the excellent links below.
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