Twenty years ago, according to Joe Gardner, Penn State tree surgeon for 38 years, the tree was bushy, green, full of healthy cones near the top, and, in the characteristic manner of a Norway Spruce, the lower branches drooped slightly. Today, many of the branches hang straight down. Branches, bare except for tufts of needles at the bottom, dangle in the wind like pendulums. Aborted cones—small, dark brown, unopened—spot the tree at all heights, to within six feet of the ground.
Acidic substances adversely affect aquatic systems, forests, monuments, and regional climates and alter the sensitivity of lakes, forests, soils, and ecosystems. In the long term, acids leach nutrients from the soil and diminish agricultural yields. These effects are already being felt in the agricultural sector; an estimated 19 percent of the agricultural land in seven provinces Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, and Jiangxi in southern China has been affected by SO2 and acid rain.
The average decrease in crop yield attributable to the combined effects of SO2 and acid rain was 4.
Vegetable yield was reduced by 7. In the same seven provinces, 4. Other ecosystems are also beginning to suffer. A study of oak and pine trees affected by acid rain in both rural and urban areas of the Democratic Republic of Korea North Korea showed significant declines in growth rates since Downing et al.
SO2 emissions are also known to contribute significantly to fine particulate matter PM through formation of sulfate particles. Fine particulate compounds from sulphates and nitrates formed by oxidation of emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides [NOx], respectively are often transported in the air over long distances.
The health effects of particulates are strongly linked to particle size. Page 74 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: Proceedings of a Symposium.
The National Academies Press. In parts of China, North Korea, and Thailand, sulfates are estimated to contribute significantly to the ambient particulate concentrations PM10 and PM2.
The majority of Chinese cities have unhealthy levels of fine particulate concentration. A growing number of epidemiological studies have shown that fine particulates penetrate deep into the human respiratory tract, aggravating asthma, heart and lung disease, and general lung functions e.
Although ambient air quality has improved, estimates of the health effects of PM pollution in China in resulting from violations of ambient air-quality standards includedpremature deaths,registered hospital admissions, more than 6 million emergency room visits, and more than 75 million asthma attacks.
Coal is the principal source of energy and a primary source of air pollution in China, which is both the largest consumer and the largest producer of coal in the world. With the rapid economic growth in China in the last two decades, coal use has doubled, driven by fast-growing thermal electricity generation, as well as growing demand in the industrial and domestic sectors.
Cities in China are heavily polluted by SO2 and PM emissions, primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels by both small domestic stoves and large industrial plants, including coal-fired power plants and boilers, ore smelters, oil refineries, etc.
Smaller stationary combustion sources, such as space heaters, also contribute to the problem, especially in urban areas during the winter. GHG concentrations are likely to increase from all sectors as incomes and industrialization increase, further contributing to both local and global environmental concerns.
The growing demand for transportation and the rapid increase in the number of vehicles on the roads have led to an increase in air pollution, including sulfur emissions. However, recent emission inventories published by the State 1 China does not currently report monitoring data for fine particulate pollution.
Page 75 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Approximately 2 percent of the total sulfur emissions in China in was attributable to transportation, compared to about 86 percent from the industrial and power sectors combined Streets et al. However, sulfur emissions from the transportation sector are not insignificant and should be included in future analyses.
One objective of the present study and the associated technical assistance project is to help localities in China address several questions related to the planning and implementation of regulations to control SO2 emissions and acid rain: What are the environmental consequences for specific localities of different pollution control strategies in terms of human health effects, agricultural productivity, and other activities?
What are the relative costs of different plans to reduce sulfur emissions? Will the proposed strategies enable localities to meet the environmental targets set by the central government? Acid rain, defined as precipitation with a pH value lower than 5.
A critical load is an estimate of the maximum allowable input of acid deposition that will not adversely affect growth or otherwise damage ecosystems. This report has been prepared for a percentile critical load, but ecosystems in southern China, which are very susceptible to soil acidity, have lower critical loads.
InChina adopted national legislation to limit ambient SO2 pollution and halt the increase of acid rain.A legacy of acid rain has acidified forest soils throughout the northeastern US, lowering the growth rate of trees. In an attempt to mitigate this trend, in scientists added calcium to an.
SS6G9 The student will discuss environmental issues in Europe. a. Explain the major concerns of Europeans regarding the issues such as acid rain in Germany, air pollution in the United Kingdom, and the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine. SS6E5 The student will analyze different economic systems.
a. In , the British chemist Robert Angus Smith coined the term "acid rain" in Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology. Smith had taken careful chemical readings of rain in Britain and Germany over a period of 20 years during the Industrial Revolution.
This in-depth solution of over words provides an analysis on acid rain and includes details on pollutant source, chemical types, impacts to humans and ecosystems, mitigation plans, laws and regulations and present progress.
Acid Rain Lesson Plan Overview Acid Rain Lesson Plan The National Park Service Air Resources Division in an effort to increase the public's awareness of air quality issues has developed a series of five activities for elementary and secondary schools.
The activities are for grades six through eight and help teach students about Acid Rain. In June President Bush proposed sweeping revisions to the Clean Air Act.
Building on Congressional proposals advanced during the s, the President proposed legislation designed to curb three major threats to the nation's environment and to the health of millions of Americans: acid rain, urban air pollution, and toxic air emissions.