Realism is both an epistemological and a metaphysical doctrine.
Definitions Broadly defined as "the faithful representation of reality" or "verisimilitude," realism is a literary technique practiced by many schools of writing. Although strictly speaking, realism is a technique, it also denotes a particular kind of subject matter, especially the representation of middle-class life.
A reaction against romanticism, an interest in scientific method, the systematizing of the study of documentary history, and the influence of rational philosophy all affected the rise of realism.
According to William Harmon and Hugh Holman, "Where romanticists transcend the immediate to find the ideal, and naturalists plumb the actual or superficial to find the scientific laws that control its actions, realists center their attention to a remarkable degree on the immediate, the here and now, the specific action, and the verifiable consequence" A Handbook to Literature Many critics have suggested that there is no clear distinction between realism and its related late nineteenth-century movement, naturalism.
Howells to London, the term "realism" is difficult to define, in part because it is used differently in European contexts than in American literature. Pizer suggests that "whatever was being produced in fiction during the s and s that was new, interesting, and roughly similar in a number of ways can be designated An analysis of american realism realism, and that an equally new, interesting, and roughly similar body of writing produced at the turn of the century can be designated as naturalism" 5.
Put rather too simplistically, one rough distinction made by critics is that realism espousing a deterministic philosophy and focusing on the lower classes is considered naturalism.
In American literature, the term "realism" encompasses the period of time from the Civil War to the turn of the century during which William Dean Howells, Rebecca Harding Davis, Henry James, Mark Twain, and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts.
As the United States grew rapidly after the Civil War, the increasing rates of democracy and literacy, the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence provided a fertile literary environment for readers interested in understanding these rapid shifts in culture.
In drawing attention to this connection, Amy Kaplan has called realism a "strategy for imagining and managing the threats of social change" Social Construction of American Realism ix.
Realism was a movement that encompassed the entire country, or at least the Midwest and South, although many of the writers and critics associated with realism notably W.
Howells were based in New England. Among the Midwestern writers considered realists would be Joseph Kirkland, E. Selective presentation of reality with an emphasis on verisimilitude, even at the expense of a well-made plot Character is more important than action and plot; complex ethical choices are often the subject.
Characters appear in their real complexity of temperament and motive; they are in explicable relation to nature, to each other, to their social class, to their own past.
Class is important; the novel has traditionally served the interests and aspirations of an insurgent middle class. Realistic novels avoid the sensational, dramatic elements of naturalistic novels and romances. Diction is natural vernacular, not heightened or poetic; tone may be comic, satiric, or matter-of-fact.
Objectivity in presentation becomes increasingly important: Interior or psychological realism a variant form. In Black and White Strangers, Kenneth Warren suggests that a basic difference between realism and sentimentalism is that in realism, "the redemption of the individual lay within the social world," but in sentimental fiction, "the redemption of the social world lay with the individual" The realism of James and Twain was critically acclaimed in twentieth century; Howellsian realism fell into disfavor as part of early twentieth century rebellion against the "genteel tradition.Famous art and artists in Realism with analysis of achievements and overall contributions to the movement.
Course Summary English American Literature has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities. In the discipline of international relations there are contending general theories or theoretical perspectives.
Realism, also known as political realism, is a view of international politics that stresses its competitive and conflictual side. Theodore Dreiser’s novel Sister Carrie is an example of a naturalist text because it integrates the ideas behind the American literary realism movement, particularly in terms of precise descriptions and rational observations, yet also contains elements that make the reader understand that characters are simply the products of environment and outside influences.
Realism and International Politics brings together the collected essays of Kenneth N. Waltz, one of the most important and influential thinkers of international relations in the second half of the twentieth century. His books Man, the State and War and Theory of International Politics are classics of international relations theory and gave birth to the school of thought known as neo-realism or.
This is a very interesting approach to Lovecraft. I appreciate how the author proves that Lovecraft is a superior artist by using specific quotes from each of the texts and showing how they work the create a new form of cosmic horror.